Monokines released during short-term Fc gamma receptor phagocytosis up-regulate polymorphonuclear leukocytes and monocyte-phagocytic function.
Freshly explanted monocytes phagocytosing IgG antibody-coated erythrocyte targets (EIgG) release a factor(s) that stimulates phagocytosis by neighboring monocytes and polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN). Culture supernatants obtained after 30-min incubation of adherent monocytes with EIgG, but not unopsonized sheep erythrocytes, markedly up-regulated the extent of PMN phagocytosis and enhanced the rate at which monocytes ingested EIgG. The presence of this factor(s) was first evident in phagocytic studies in which monocytes were prepared by a colloidal silica-based continuous gradient technique (Sepracell-Mn). After introduction of erythrocyte targets, there was a 20- to 30-min delay before initiation of phagocytosis that was not observed with monocytes prepared by the standard Percoll-gradient technique. Experiments suggest that, when compared with monocytes prepared by the Percoll-gradient method, Sepracell-Mn monocytes are closer to a base line state of activation with regard to the expression of Fc gamma RI and the ability to ingest EIgG. The mechanism of PMN upregulation by the monocyte factor(s) was explored. Monocyte supernatants did not induce an increase in the surface expression of PMN Fc gamma RI, II, or III. Neither anti-TNF, anti-IL-2, nor anti-GM-CSF had any significant effect on monocyte supernatant activity. Neutrophil activating protein-1 was not detected by ELISA. In contrast, anti-IL-1 completely blocked the effect of the supernatant on subsequent monocyte phagocytosis, and partially inhibited its effect on PMN phagocytosis. Furthermore, it was shown that RIL-1 as well as TNF markedly enhanced monocyte and PMN ingestion of EIgG. These results suggest that monocytes, after Fc gamma R-mediated phagocytosis, release monokines, including at least IL-1, which enhance the phagocytic function of neighboring PMN and monocytes to augment the host defense process.
Simms, HH; Gaither, TA; Fries, LF; Frank, MM
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