Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome. A spectrum of developmental disorders.
The clinical and histopathologic features of Axenfeld's anomaly and Rieger's anomaly and syndrome are reviewed, and recent findings regarding the pathogenesis of this spectrum of developmental disorders are discussed. Based on these observations, it has been suggested that a developmental arrest, in the third trimester of gestation, of tissues derived from the neural crest cells accounts for the ocular and most of the nonocular abnormalities in this group of disorders. Since previous collective terms, such as mesodermal dysgenesis and anterior chamber cleavage syndrome, are not consistent with these new observations, the alternative name, Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome, has been proposed. The differential diagnosis of the syndrome includes two additional spectra of disorders: the iridocorneal endothelial syndrome and the posterior polymorphous dystrophies. The most serious ocular problem in Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome is the associated glaucoma, which occurs in a high percentage of patients and is typically difficult to control. Recent observations regarding the mechanism of the glaucoma, as reviewed in this paper, provide guidance in the management of this aspect of Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome.
Shields, MB; Buckley, E; Klintworth, GK; Thresher, R
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