Ocular and orbital phycomycosis.
Cerebro-rhino-orbital phycomycosis (CROP) occurs predominantly in individuals with diabetes mellitus in a state of metabolic acidosis. Other forms of metabolic acidosis, especially in infants, may predispose to phycomycotic infections. CROP has also been reported in patients with leukemia or lymphoma. CROP usually begins in the palate or paranasal sinuses and rapidly spreads to the orbital contents. Proptosis, loss of vision, and ophthalmoplegia occur and death from cerebral involvement commonly ensues. The fungus tends to invade arteries and cause thrombosis and tissue infarction. Rhizopus is the most commonly isolated genus in CROP, accounting for almost all cases. The diagnosis can be strongly suspected by the characteristic clinical manifestations. Therapy includes treatment of the underlying disease, surgical excision of the necrotic tissue containing fungal elements and the systemic administration of amphotericin-B. The effect of treatment has improved since the disease was first described, but the condition still has a high mortality, especially if it is not diagnosed early.
Schwartz, JN; Donnelly, EH; Klintworth, GK
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