Fine-needle aspiration cytology findings in a case of aggressive angiomyxoma: a case report and review of the literature.
Aggressive angiomyxomas are uncommon but distinct soft-tissue neoplasms occurring predominantly in the pelvis and peritoneum of females, but they have occasionally been reported in association with inguinal hernias in males. Histologically, these neoplasms are characterized by a proliferation of spindle- or stellate-shaped cells widely separated by loose myxoid stroma in which is dispersed a prominent vascular component. The vascular component is comprised of large, thick-walled vessels that generally to not show an arborizing pattern. Mitotic activity has been exceedingly low in the cases reported. Because of their occurrence within the groin, these lesions may undergo fine-needle aspiration (FNA). Cytologic examination of this material will reveal hypocellular smears containing scattered spindle cells with bipolar cytoplasmic processes, as well as bland stellate cells. The nuclei are fusiform to oval with a bland chromatin pattern. The stromal cells lie in a background of watery myxoid material. While specific diagnosis by FNA is not possible, the recognition of this cytologic appearance should exclude lymphoproliferative processes as well as metastatic disease from the differential diagnosis. Careful attention to cytologic detail should also help exclude certain other myxoid neoplasms, especially myxoid liposarcoma. Once the myxoid stromal nature of the proliferation is recognized, a differential diagnosis of myxoid lesions can be considered along with a recommendation for open biopsy to establish the definitive diagnosis.
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