Rapid freezing of whole blood or buffy coat samples for polymerase chain reaction and cell culture analysis: application to detection of human immunodeficiency virus in blood donor and recipient repositories. The Transfusion Safety Study Group.
Storage of lymphocytes for later use in prospective epidemiologic studies of blood donors and transfusion recipients has been limited by the cost of separating peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). When the Transfusion Safety Study began in 1985, it was decided to establish a cell repository of cryopreserved buffy coat (BC) samples, and thus far over 20,000 samples have been accumulated from enrolled subjects. To determine if these specimens could be used for polymerase chain reaction, a simple thawing and pelleting technique for recovering hemoglobin-free total white cells (WBCs) was developed. To validate the technique, parallel analysis was conducted of BCs, whole blood (WB), and PBMC samples from human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-seropositive subjects. Immediate postthaw cell courts of 29 frozen-thawed (F-T) WB and BC samples averaged 90 percent of the prefreeze (input) values. Representative WBC populations were obtained by immediate pelleting. Amplification of HIV-1 gag sequences from F-T BCs and F-T WB was 94 and 75 percent, respectively, which is as sensitive as that obtained with freshly separated PBMC lysates. Quantitative HIV-1 proviral load analysis by serial dilution of 23 F-T BCs and 8 WB lysates showed results comparable to those obtained with lysates of fresh PBMCs. Values for WBC differential and immunophenotyping could be applied to express viral load relative to total WBCs, PBMCs, or CD4+ cells. These results establish the basis for simplified virologic analysis of cryopreserved BC or WB specimens.
Adams, M; Lee, TH; Busch, MP; Heitman, J; Marshall, GJ; Gjerset, GF; Mosley, JW
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