Evaluation of cefazolin, a new cephalosporin antibiotic.
Cefazolin sodium was tested in vitro against 308 isolates of Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Neisseria meningitidis, Haemophilus influenzae, Staphylococcus aureus, and enterococcus. Broth and agar dilution and disk diffusion techniques were used with at least two sizes of inocula of organisms. Cefazolin was also studied in the treatment of 85 hospitalized patients with a variety of serious infections. In concentations of 5 mug or less/ml, cefazolin inhibited and killed more than 90% of isolates of Enterobacteriaceae with the exception of indole-positive Proteus and Enterobacter species. No isolate of P. aeruginosa and only a few of Enterobacter and enterococci were killed by 25 mug of cefazolin/ml, a concentration readily attainable in serum with a 500-mg dose given intramuscularly. Penicillin-susceptible as well as penicillin-resistant isolates of S. aureus were killed by 1 mug or less of cefazolin per ml; however, 25 mug/ml was required to kill 100% of the strains when the inoculum size was increased 100-fold. Cefazolin treatment appeared effective in 82 of 85 patients, including four with endocarditis. Pain was minimal after intramuscular injection, and thrombophlebitis was not observed in those treated intravenously. No patient developed a positive Coombs test, and no evidence of renal toxicity was apparent in clinical studies.
Reller, LB; Karney, WW; Beaty, HN; Holmes, KK; Turck, M
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