Hyperthermia enables tumor-specific nanoparticle delivery: effect of particle size.
The efficacy of novel cancer therapeutics has been hampered by the ability to deliver these agents to the tumor at effective concentrations. Liposomes have been used as a method to overcome some delivery issues and, in combination with hyperthermia, have been shown to increase drug delivery to tumors. Particle size has been shown to affect the delivery of liposomes, but it is not known how hyperthermia affects size dependence. This study investigates the effect of hyperthermia (42 degrees C) on the extravasation of different sized nanoparticles (albumin; 100-, 200-, and 400-nm liposomes) from tumor microvasculature in a human tumor (SKOV-3 ovarian carcinoma) xenograft grown in mouse window chambers. In this model (at 34 degrees C), no liposomes were able to extravasate into the tumor interstitium. Hyperthermia enabled liposome extravasation of all sizes. The magnitude of hyperthermia-induced extravasation was inversely proportional to particle size. Thus, at normothermia (34 degrees C), the pore cutoff size for this model was between 7 and 100 nm (e.g., liposomes did not extravasate). At 42 degrees C, the pore cutoff size was increased to >400 nm, allowing all nanoparticles tested to be delivered to the tumor interstitium to some degree. With hyperthermia, the 100-nm liposome experienced the largest relative increase in extravasation from tumor vasculature. Hyperthermia did not enable extravasation of 100-nm liposomes from normal vasculature, potentially allowing for tumor-specific delivery. These experiments indicate that hyperthermia can enable and augment liposomal drug delivery to tumors and potentially help target liposomes specifically to tumors.
Kong, G; Braun, RD; Dewhirst, MW
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