Multiple residues contribute to the inability of murine CCR-5 to function as a coreceptor for macrophage-tropic human immunodeficiency virus type 1 isolates.

Published

Journal Article

Infection of CD4-positive cells by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) requires functional interaction of the viral envelope protein with a coreceptor belonging to the chemokine receptor family of seven-membrane-spanning receptors. For the majority of macrophage-tropic HIV-1 isolates, the physiologically relevant coreceptor is the human CCR-5 (hCCR-5) receptor. Although the murine homolog of CCR-5 (mCCR-5) is unable to mediate HIV-1 infection, chimeric hCCR-5/mCCR-5 molecules containing single extracellular domains derived from hCCR-5 are effective coreceptors for certain macrophage-tropic HIV-1 isolates. Here, we have sought to identify residues in hCCR-5 critical for HIV-1 infection by substitution of mCCR-5-derived residues into the context of functional chimeric hCCR-5/mCCR-5 receptor molecules. Using this strategy, we demonstrate that residues 7, 13, and 15 in the first extracellular domain and residue 180 in the third extracellular domain of CCR-5 are important for HIV-1 envelope-mediated membrane fusion. Of interest, certain substitutions, for example, at residues 184 and 185 in the third extracellular domain, have no phenotype when introduced individually but strongly inhibit hCCR-5 coreceptor function when present together. We hypothesize that these changes, which do not preclude chemokine receptor function, may inhibit a conformational transition in hCCR-5 that contributes to HIV-1 infection. Finally, we report that substitution of glycine for valine at residue 5 in CCR-5 can significantly enhance the level of envelope-dependent cell fusion by expressing cells. The diversity of the mutant phenotypes observed in this mutational analysis, combined with their wide distribution across the extracellular regions of CCR-5, emphasizes the complexity of the interaction between HIV-1 envelope and coreceptor.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Ross, TM; Bieniasz, PD; Cullen, BR

Published Date

  • March 1, 1998

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 72 / 3

Start / End Page

  • 1918 - 1924

PubMed ID

  • 9499044

Pubmed Central ID

  • 9499044

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

  • 0022-538X

Language

  • eng

Conference Location

  • United States