HIV-1-induced cell fusion is mediated by multiple regions within both the viral envelope and the CCR-5 co-receptor.
Although the human hCCR-5 chemokine receptor can serve as a co-receptor for both M-tropic (ADA and BaL) and dual-tropic (89.6) strains of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), the closely related mouse mCCR-5 homolog is inactive. We used chimeric hCCR-5-mCCR-5 receptor molecules to examine the functional importance of the three extracellular domains of hCCR-5 that differ in sequence from their mCCR-5 equivalents. While this analysis revealed that all three of these extracellular domains could participate in the functional interaction with HIV-1 envelope, clear differences were observed when different HIV-1 strains were analyzed. Thus, while the ADA HIV-1 isolate could effectively utilize chimeric human-mouse CCR-5 chimeras containing any single human extracellular domain, the BaL isolate required any two human extracellular sequences while the 89.6 isolate would only interact effectively with chimeras containing all three human extracellular sequences. Further analysis using hybrid HIV-1 envelope proteins showed that the difference in co-receptor specificity displayed by the ADA and BaL isolates was due partly to a single amino acid change in the V3 loop, although this interaction was clearly also modulated by other envelope domains. Overall, these data indicate that the interaction between HIV-1 envelope and CCR-5 is not only complex but also subject to marked, HIV-1 isolate-dependent variation.
Bieniasz, PD; Fridell, RA; Aramori, I; Ferguson, SS; Caron, MG; Cullen, BR
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