Stereochemistry of the reactions catalyzed by chicken liver fatty acid synthase.
The stereochemistry of the four partial reactions catalyzed by chicken liver fatty acid synthase that lead to the synthesis of palmitic acid has been determined. The reduction of acetoacetyl-CoA to 3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA by NADPH proceeds with the transfer of the pro-4S hydrogen of NADPH to form D-3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA. During the subsequent dehydration of D-3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA the pro-2S hydrogen and the 3-hydroxyl group are removed in a syn elimination to form crotonyl-CoA. Crotonyl-CoA is reduced to butyryl-CoA by NADPH, with the transfer of the pro-4R hydrogen of NADPH to the pro-3R position in butyryl-CoA and the transfer of a solvent hydrogen to the pro-2S position. The occurrence of the syn dehydration, when combined with the results of a previous study [ Sedgwick , B., & Cornforth , J. W. (1977) Eur. J. Biochem. 75, 465-479], implies that the condensation of the enzyme-bound malonyl moiety with the enzyme-bound saturated fatty acid to form a 3-keto intermediate proceeds with inversion at C-2 of the malonyl. The stereochemistry of the hydration was derived from an analysis of the spin-spin coupling constant of 3-hydroxy[2-2H]butyric acid benzylamides obtained from 3-hydroxy[2-2H]butyryl-CoA synthesized by fatty acid synthase. The elucidation of the stereochemistry of the reduction of crotonyl-CoA relied on the previously established stereochemistry of pork liver acyl-CoA dehydrogenase. The source of all 28 prochiral hydrogens of the palmitic acid synthesized by chicken liver fatty acid synthase was inferred from the results of this work.
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