Further characterization of nucleotide binding sites on chloroplast coupling factor one.
The solubilized coupling factor from spinach chloroplasts (CF1) contains one nondissociable ADP/CF1 which exchanges slowly with medium ADP in the presence of Ca2+, Mg2+, or EDTA; medium ATP also exchanges in the presence of Ca2+ or EDTA, but it is hydrolyzed, and only ADP is found bound to CF1. The rate of ATP exchange with heat-activated CF1 is approximately 1000 times slower than the rate of ATP hydrolysis. In the presence of Mg2+, both latent CF1 and heat-activated CF1 bind one ATP/CF1, in addition to the ADP. This MgATP is not removed by dialysis, by gel filtration, or by the substrate CaATP during catalytic turnover; however, it is released when the enzyme is stored several days as an ammonium sulfate precipitate. The photoaffinity label 3'-O-[3-[N-(4-azido-2-nitrophenyl)amino]-propionyl]-ATP binds to the MgATP site, and photolysis results in labeling of the beta subunit of CF1. Equilibrium binding measurements indicate that CF1 has two identical binding sites for ADP with a dissociation constant of 3.9 microM (in addition to the nondissociable ADP site). When MgATP is bound to CF1, one ADP binding site with a dissociation constant of 2.9 microM is found. One ATP binding site is found in addition to the MgATP site with a dissociation constant of 2.9 microM. Reaction of CF1 with the photoaffinity label 3'-O-[3-[N-(4-azido-2-nitrophenyl)amino]propionyl]-ADP indicates that the ADP binding site which is not blocked by MgATP is located near the interface of alpha and beta subunits. No additional binding sites with dissociation constants less than 200 micro M are observed for MgATP with latent CF1 and for CaADP with heat-activated CF1. Thus, three distinct nucleotide binding sites can be identified on CF1, and the tightly bound ADP and MgATP are not at the catalytic site. The active site is either the third ADP and ATP binding site or a site not yet detected.
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