An equilibrium binding study of the interaction of fructose 6-phosphate and fructose 1,6-bisphosphate with rabbit muscle phosphofructokinase.
Equilibrium binding studies of the interaction of rabbit muscle phosphofructokinase with fructose 6-phosphate and fructose 1,6-bisphosphate have been carried out at 5 degrees in the presence of 1-10 mM potassium phosphate (pH 7.0 and 8.0), 5 mM citrate (pH 7.0), or 0.22 mm adenylyl imidodiphosphate (pH 7.0 and 8.0). The binding isotherms for both fructose 6-phosphate and fructose 1,6-bisphosphate exhibit negative cooperativity at pH 7.0 and 8.0 in the presence of 1-10 mM potassium phosphate at protein concentrations where the enzyme exists as a mixture of dimers and tetramers (pH 7.0) or as tetramers (pH 8.0) and at pH 7.0 in the presence of 5 mM citrate where the enzyme exists primarily as dimers. The enzyme binds 1 mol of either fructose phosphate/mol of enzyme monomer (molecular weight 80,000). When enzyme aggregation states smaller than the tetramer are present, the saturation of the enzyme with either ligand is paralleled by polymerization of the enzyme to tetramer, by an increase in enzymatic activity and by a quenching of the protein fluorescence. At protein concentrations where aggregates higher than the tetramer predominate, the fructose 1,6-bisphosphate binding isotherms are hyperbolic. These results can be quantitatively analyzed in terms of a model in which the dimer is associated with extreme negative cooperativity in binding the ligands, the tetramer is associated with less negative cooperativity, and aggregates larger than the tetramer are associated with little or no cooperativity in the binding process. Phosphate is a competitive inhibitor of the fructose phosphate sites at both pH 7.0 and 8.0, while citrate inhibits binding in a complex, noncompetitive manner. In the presence of the ATP analog adenylyl imidodiphosphate, the enzyme-fructose 6-phosphate binding isotherm is sigmoidal at pH 7.0, but hyperbolic at pH 8.0. The characteristic sigmoidal initial velocity-fructose 6-phosphate isotherms for phosphofructokinase at pH 7.0, therefore, are due to an heterotropic interaction between ATP and fructose 6-phosphate binding sites which alters the homotropic interactions between fructose 6-phosphate binding sites. Thus the homotropic interactions between fructose 6-phosphate binding sites can give rise to positive, negative, or no cooperativity depending upon the pH, the aggregation state of the protein, and the metabolic effectors present. The available data suggest the regulation of phosphofructokinase involves a complex interplay between protein polymerization and homotropic and heterotropic interactions between ligand binding sites.
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