Characterization of three-subunit chloroplast coupling factor.
The delta- and epsilon-polypeptides were removed from chloroplast coupling factor 1 (CF1). The resulting enzyme, CF1(-delta, epsilon), is a stable active ATPase containing only alpha-, beta-, and gamma-polypeptides. The dependence of the steady-state kinetics of ATP hydrolysis catalyzed by CF1(-delta, epsilon) on the concentrations of ATP and ADP was found to be essentially the same as by activated CF1. Nucleotide binding studies with CF1(-delta, epsilon) revealed three binding sites: a nondissociable ADP site (site 1), a tight MgATP binding site (site 2), and a site that binds ADP and ATP with a dissociation constant in the micromolar range (site 3). Similar results have been obtained with CF1. For both CF1 and CF1(-delta, epsilon), the binding of MgATP at site 2 is tight only in the presence of Mg2+. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer was used to map distances between the gamma-sulfhydryl ("dark" site) and gamma-disulfide and between the gamma-sulfhydryl and the three nucleotide sites. These distances are within 5% of the corresponding distances on CF1. These results indicate that removal of the delta- and epsilon-polypeptides from CF1 does not cause significant changes in the structure, kinetics, and nucleotide binding sites of the enzyme.
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