A kinetic study of protein-protein interactions.
Kinetic studies have been carried out of the monomer-dimer interaction of insulin, beta-lactoglobulin, and alpha-chymotrypsin using stopped-flow and temperature-jump techniques. The pH indicators bromothymol blue, bromophenol blue, and phenol red were used to monitor pH changes associated with the monomer-dimer interaction. In all three cases a kinetic process was observed which could be attributed to a simple monomer-dimer equilibrium, and association (k1) and dissociation (k-1) rate constants were determined. The results obtained are as follows: for insulin at 23 degrees C, pH 6.8, 0.125 M KNO3, k1 = 1.14 X 10(8) M-1 s-1, k-1 - 1.48 X 10(4)s(-1); for beta-lactoglobulin AB at 35 degrees C, pH 3.7, 0.025 M KNO3, d1 = 4.7 X 10(4) M-1 s-1, k-1 = 2.1 s-1; for alpha-chymotrypsin at 25 degreesC, pH 4.3, 0.05 M KNO3 k1 - 3.7 X 10(3) M-1 s-1, k-1 - 0.68 s-1. The kinetic behavior of the separated beta-lactoglobulin A and B was similar to that of the mixture. In the case of chymotrypsin, bromophenol blue was found to activate the enzyme catalyzed hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl acetate, and a rate process was observed with the temperature jump which could be attributed to a conformational change of the indicator-protein complex. The association rate constant for dimer formation of insulin approaches the value expected for a diffusion-controlled process, while the values obtained for the other two proteins are below those expected for a diffusion-controlled reaction unless unusally large steric and electrostatic effects are present.
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