Fluorescence studies of chicken liver fatty acid synthase. Segmental flexibility and distance measurements.
The 4'-phosphopantetheine of chicken liver fatty acid synthase was specifically labeled with the fluorescent substrate analog coenzyme A 6-[7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl]aminohexanoate at low salt concentrations. A serine at the active site of the thioesterase was specifically labeled with the fluorescent compounds 6-[7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl]aminopentylmethylphosphono fluoridate and/or pyrenebutyl methylphosphonofluoridate. Dynamic anisotropy measurements indicate the thioesterase has considerable segmental flexibility, whereas the fluorescent labeled 4'-phosphopantetheine does not display detectable local or segmental flexibility. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer measurements indicate that the distance between the fluorescent label at the end of the 4'-phosphopantetheine and NADPH bound to the beta-ketoacyl reductase or enoyl reductase site on the same polypeptide chain is essentially the same, approximately 38 A. The two types of reductases were distinguished by specifically blocking enoyl reductase with pyridoxal 5'-phosphate. No significant energy transfer occurs between sites on different polypeptide chains so that the distances must be greater than 55 A. The distance between the serine on the thioesterase and the 4'-phosphopantetheine on the same polypeptide is 48 A; again no interpolypeptide chain energy transfer was observed. The distance between the serines of the two thioesterases within a fatty acid synthase molecule is greater than 56 A. The monomeric enzyme obtained at 1 degree C does not have beta-ketoacyl synthase and reductase activities. Also fluorescent titrations indicate NADPH is not bound to beta-ketoacyl reductase in monomeric enzyme. The addition of potassium phosphate to the monomers at 1 degree C rapidly dimerizes the enzyme and restores the beta-ketoacyl reductase activity. The beta-ketoacyl synthase activity is slowly restored when the dimer is raised to room temperature. The results obtained suggest that relatively large conformational changes may be part of the catalytic cycle.
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