Disseminated histoplasmosis: a cause of infection-associated hemophagocytic syndrome.
PURPOSE: We report a case of infection-associated hemophagocytic syndrome in the setting of disseminated histoplasmosis. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A 6-year-old boy with chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis developed a fulminant hemophagocytic syndrome. Evaluation for an infectious cause included bacterial, mycobacterial, viral, and fungal cultures, serological assessment, and histological examination of bone marrow and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. RESULTS: Culture of bone marrow aspirate, blood, and bronchoalveolar lavage showed disseminated histoplasmosis as the cause for this patient's hemophagocytic syndrome. The patient was treated with amphotericin B with complete resolution of his hemophagocytic syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: Disseminated histoplasmosis is another cause of IAHS in children with an underlying immunodeficiency. Diagnostic difficulties associated with the hemophagocytic syndromes of childhood are discussed.
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