Calorimetric analysis of the binding of lectins with overlapping carbohydrate-binding ligand specificities.
The thermodynamics of binding of a system of plant lectins specific for the oligosaccharide methyl 3,6-di-O-(alpha-D-mannopyranosyl)-alpha-D-mannopyranoside have been studied calorimetrically. This system of lectins consists of concanavalin A, the lectin isolated from Dioclea grandiflora, and the lectin from Galanthus nivalis. The group thus contains lectins with similar structures and similar binding properties as well as lectins with different structures but similar binding properties. Concanavalin A and the lectin from Dioclea are highly homologous, while the lectin from Galanthus nivalis shares no sequence homology with either of the legume lectins, although it also binds the mannose trisaccharide tightly. Calorimetric data for oligosaccharide binding to both of the legume lectins suggests that the total binding site comprises a single high-affinity site and an additional extended site. The pattern of binding for the lectin from Galanthus is significantly different. Binding studies with the same saccharides indicate that the lectin has binding sites designed specifically for the 1-->3 and 1-->6 arms of the mannose trisaccharide that are unable to accommodate other saccharides. Enthalpy--entropy compensation was observed for several saccharides as a function of lectin structure. Contributions of solvation effects to the enthalpy of binding and the configurational entropies were determined experimentally. For those systems studied here, solute-solute attractive interactions and configurational entropies were the greatest contributors to enthalpy-entropy compensation. Our studies clearly demonstrate that, despite their common affinity for the mannose trisaccharide, the three lectins bind oligosaccharides very differently.
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