Protein phosphorylation: hormones, drugs, and bioregulation.
Reversible protein phosphorylation is widely recognized as an important mechanism for the regulation of cell function by a variety of physiological stimuli. Exposure of cells to hormones, neurotransmitters, and growth factors initiates a cascade of events facilitated by intracellular second messengers and mediated in many cases by protein kinases and/or phosphatases. The subsequent covalent modification of target proteins and the associated changes in their function account for the physiological response. Considerable evidence points to cross-talk between multiple membrane-associated signaling processes leading to coordinated regulation of cellular processes. The role of protein phosphorylation at multiple points in the pathways that integrate these signals is becoming increasingly apparent. Pharmacological modulation of cellular protein phosphorylation has yielded useful information on the molecular events involved. This review surveys some of the recent progress in hormonal regulation of cell function, focusing on examples that may provide new insight into the role of protein phosphorylation in the coordinated control of cellular processes by physiological stimuli.
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