Postcranial robusticity in Homo. II: Humeral bilateral asymmetry and bone plasticity.

Journal Article (Journal Article)

The analysis of humeral asymmetry in Recent human skeletal samples and an extant tennis-player sample documents minimal asymmetry in bone length, little asymmetry in distal humeral articular breadth, but pronounced and variable asymmetry in mid- and distal diaphyseal cross-sectional geometric parameters. More specifically, skeletal samples of normal modern Euroamericans, prehistoric and early historic Amerindians, and prehistoric Japanese show moderate (ca. 5-14%) median asymmetry in diaphyseal cross-sectional areas and polar second moments of area, whereas the tennis-player sample, with pronounced unilateral physical activity, exhibits median asymmetries of 28-57% in the same parameters. A sample of Neandertals with nonpathological upper limbs exhibits similarly low articular asymmetry but pronounced diaphyseal asymmetries, averaging 24-57%. In addition, three Neandertals with actual or possible post-traumatic upper limb alterations have the same low articular asymmetry but extremely high diaphyseal asymmetries, averaging 112-215%. These data support those from experimental work on animals, exercise programs of humans, and human clinical contexts in establishing the high degree of diaphyseal plasticity possible for humans, past and present, under changing biomechanical loading conditions. This lends support to activity-related functional interpretations of changing human diaphyseal morphology and robusticity during the Pleistocene.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Trinkaus, E; Churchill, SE; Ruff, CB

Published Date

  • January 1994

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 93 / 1

Start / End Page

  • 1 - 34

PubMed ID

  • 8141238

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1096-8644

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

  • 0002-9483

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1002/ajpa.1330930102


  • eng