Neandertal scapular glenoid morphology.
Analysis of Neandertal and recent human scapular glenoid fossae reveals that the former had long, narrow, and flat glenoid articular surfaces relative to those of modern humans. Comparison of glenoid length, breadth, and curvature to humeral articular dimensions demonstrates that Neandertal glenoid length and curvature scale to proximal and distal humeral articular dimensions in the same manner as those of modern humans. The remaining contrast is in the relatively greater glenoid fossa width seen in modern humans. This difference in morphology implies differences in the habitual degree of dorsoventral glenohumeral movement between Neandertals and modern humans. This in turn may be related to contrasts in tool use, especially with respect to throwing and projectile use.
Churchill, SE; Trinkaus, E
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