Systemic hypertension alters vasomotor function in experimental vein grafts.
Hypertension is an established risk factor for atherosclerosis, a disease that is important in the pathophysiology of vein graft failure. Hypertension can also alter arterial vasoreactivity. The vasomotor function and histologic characteristics of autogenous vein grafts in hypertensive rabbits were assessed in this study. Hypertension was induced in 13 male New Zealand white rabbits by use of the Goldblatt one clip two kidney method. The right carotid artery was divided and bypassed with the reversed right external jugular vein 7 days later in these animals and in 13 normotensive controls. Blood pressure and renal function were assessed serially, and all the grafts were harvested after 28 days. Three grafts in each group were examined by light microscopy. The responses of the remaining grafts to norepinephrine, histamine, serotonin, and angiotensin II were determined in vitro under isometric tension. Endothelium-dependent relaxation to acetylcholine and calcium ionophore (A23187) was assessed in precontracted grafts. The mean arterial pressure was significantly increased after the Goldblatt procedure was performed. Intimal hyperplasia was observed in both groups, but the grafts in the hypertensive groups showed increased adventitial and medial fibrosis and a reduced number of vasa vasora. The grafts in the hypertensive rabbits were hypersensitive to all agonists as indicated by a significant reduction in their median effective dose values, and their maximal responses to all agonists were also significantly reduced. No graft relaxed in response to acetylcholine, and whereas precontracted grafts in normotensive rabbits had a maximal relaxation of 24% +/- 6% of precontraction with A23187, this was absent in the grafts in the hypertensive rabbits. The results suggest that angiotensin-induced hypertension may adversely affect vein graft patency by inducing hypersensitivity to physiologically important agonists and reducing the effect of receptor-independent endothelium-derived relaxation on vasomotor tone.
O'Donohoe, MK; Radic, ZS; Schwartz, LB; Mikat, EM; McCann, RL; Hagen, PO
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