Vascular complications of cardiac catheterization.
Femoral artery injury after diagnostic and therapeutic cardiac catheterization is a frequently encountered clinical problem. This study reviews 150 femoral artery injuries that occurred in 16,350 patients over a 5-year period. A prospective computerized cardiac catheterization data bank was used to determine significant risk factors associated with the occurrence of vascular injury. Logistic regression analysis revealed that congestive heart failure, female gender, and percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty or valvuloplasty procedure were significantly associated with occurrence of vascular injury. Greater age, smaller body surface area, and smaller weight were also associated with injury. Recommendations for management include an aggressive approach to obstruction even if local vascular reconstruction is required. False aneurysms are studied by ultrasonography, and small ones may be observed expectantly. Larger aneurysms and aneurysms that persist beyond a few days are managed by use of general or regional anesthesia and by gaining proximal control of the iliac artery. Arteriovenous fistulas resulting from catheterization are rarely hemodynamically significant and often close spontaneously. Thus repair should be delayed.
McCann, RL; Schwartz, LB; Pieper, KS
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