Long-term evaluation of patients with primary parathyroid hyperplasia managed by total parathyroidectomy and heterotopic autotransplantation.
Since 1973, we have performed total parathyroidectomy and forearm parathyroid autotransplantation in 36 patients with generalized (four gland) primary parathyroid hyperplasia. Twenty (56%) patients had nonfamilial parathyroid hyperplasia (NFPH) and 16 (44%) patients had familial parathyroid hyperplasia (FPH). Twenty-one patients (Group A) were undergoing operation for the first time and 15 (Group B) were having either second, third or fourth re-explorations for persistent hyperparathyroidism. All patients in Group A and nine patients in Group B had parathyroid resection and immediate autotransplantation as a single procedure. Six Group B patients had hyperfunctioning parathyroid tissue resected, cryopreserved, and subsequently grafted when it was evident that they had been rendered aparathyroid. A sustained differential elevation (13.7 fold +/- 2.7) of parathyroid hormone was detected in the antecubital vein of the grafted compared to the nongrafted arm in 35 (97%) patients. Two (5.6%) of the 36 patients (both with FPH; one Group A and one Group B) required permanent oral calcium and vitamin D replacement therapy and one (3%) patient (NFPH: Group A) had persistent hypercalcemia postoperatively, presumably due to a supernumerary gland. The remaining 33 (92%) patients became normocalcemia after surgery and 23 (70%) of them remained so. Ten (30%) of the 33 patients developed recurrent graft dependent hyperparathyroidism. Eight patients were from the group with FPH (8/14, 57%) and two were from the group with NFPH (2/19, 11%)(FPH vs. NFPH, p < 0.005). Because of symptoms of hypercalcemia or a serum calcium concentration exceeding 11 mg/dl, partial graft resection was performed in five patients and four became normocalcemic. Patients with generalized primary parathyroid hyperplasia may be difficult to cure, especially if the disease is familial. The technique of total parathyroidectomy and heterotopic autotransplantation of fresh or cryopreserved parathyroid tissue offers distinct advantages over alternative techniques.
Wells, SA; Farndon, JR; Dale, JK; Leight, GS; Dilley, WG
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