Successful surgical treatment of anuria caused by renal artery occlusion.
Anuria resulting from obstruction of the renal arteries to both Kidneys or to a solitary kidney is unusual. The tolerance of the kidney to this ischemia is largely dependent upon the presence of collaterals, stimulated by pre-existing arterial disease. Our experience with six patients with anuria caused by renal artery occlusion supports the role of revascularization in the recovery of significant renal function. Four of these patients had hypertension, impaired renal function, and the existence of collateral circulation to an ischemic kidney, prior to occlusion, while two patients had normal renal function (serum creatinine = 0.5 and 0.9 mg/dl) before occlusion. The intervals of anuria for the two previously normal kidneys were six hours and five days, and 2 to 14 days in the four patients with vascular disease. Isotope scanning suggested renal artery occlusion in two patients, but arteriograms confirmed the diagnosis in all six. A thrombectomy restored blood flow through the two previously normal renal arteries. Grafts from the aorta or celiax axis were used for three patients and the splenic artery was used for the sixth patient. Urine flow began during or soon after operation in all patients. Dialysis was necessary for 30 and 45 days in the two patients with normal kidneys, but in only one of the four patients with previous disease (for ten days). Serum creatinine decreased to <2.0 mg/dl after operation, except in the man with a solitary kidney, who five years later has a creatinine of 3 mg/dl. All four patients with previous arterial disease died from cardiac failure within 1 to 30 months after operation. Therefore, anuria of acute onset should be evaluated by renal scan and arteriogram to detect those patients with proximal renal artery occlusion in preparation for revascularization.
Flye, MW; Anderson, RW; Fish, JC; Silver, D
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