Selective autoregulation of endothelins in primary astrocyte cultures: endothelin receptor-mediated potentiation of endothelin-1 secretion.
Observations that primary rat astrocytes express high-affinity binding sites for endothelins and, in addition, are capable of producing not only endothelin-3 but also endothelin-1 prompted the investigation of a possible relation between endothelin peptides and receptors in these cells. Sarafotoxin S6b, an endothelin receptor agonist, was used as a tool to study endothelin receptor-mediated changes in the secretion of endothelin-1 and -3. The effects of sarafotoxin S6b and endothelin-1 in stimulating inositolphospholipid turnover as well as in inducing AP1 in primary astrocyte cultures were found to be similar. A low cross-reactivity of sarafotoxin S6b with endothelin-1 and -3 in the endothelin radioimmunoassays used here, along with a distinctly different elution position in high-performance liquid chromatography, allowed a clear discrimination between sarafotoxin and endothelins in the culture media. Stimulation of primary rat astrocytes with 10(-7) M sarafotoxin S6b for 1 hour resulted in a substantial increase in endothelin-1 immunoreactivity in the medium. This immunoreactivity reached a peak at 3 hours and showed no further increase after 8 and 24 hours. Treatment of our cultures with phorbol myristate acetate, lipopolysaccharide, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and norepinephrine for 24 hours led to only a moderate elevation of endothelin-1 immunoreactivity. Immunoreactive endothelin-3 was not affected by any of the treatments tested. Thus, our data suggest that endothelins in primary rat astrocytes are subject to selective autoregulation, as demonstrated by the potentiation of endothelin-1 secretion after activation of glial endothelin receptors.
Ehrenreich, H; Anderson, RW; Ogino, Y; Rieckmann, P; Costa, T; Wood, GP; Coligan, JE; Kehrl, JH; Fauci, AS
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