Parallel iterative reaction path optimization in ab initio quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical modeling of enzyme reactions.
The determination of reaction paths for enzyme systems remains a great challenge for current computational methods. In this paper we present an efficient method for the determination of minimum energy reaction paths with the ab initio quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical approach. Our method is based on an adaptation of the path optimization procedure by Ayala and Schlegel for small molecules in gas phase, the iterative quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) optimization method developed earlier in our laboratory and the introduction of a new metric defining the distance between different structures in the configuration space. In this method we represent the reaction path by a discrete set of structures. For each structure we partition the atoms into a core set that usually includes the QM subsystem and an environment set that usually includes the MM subsystem. These two sets are optimized iteratively: the core set is optimized to approximate the reaction path while the environment set is optimized to the corresponding energy minimum. In the optimization of the core set of atoms for the reaction path, we introduce a new metric to define the distances between the points on the reaction path, which excludes the soft degrees of freedom from the environment set and includes extra weights on coordinates describing chemical changes. Because the reaction path is represented by discrete structures and the optimization for each can be performed individually with very limited coupling, our method can be executed in a natural and efficient parallelization, with each processor handling one of the structures. We demonstrate the applicability and efficiency of our method by testing it on two systems previously studied by our group, triosephosphate isomerase and 4-oxalocrotonate tautomerase. In both cases the minimum energy paths for both enzymes agree with the previously reported paths.
Liu, H; Lu, Z; Cisneros, GA; Yang, W
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