Antibodies to prothrombin, factor V, and beta2-glycoprotein I and vascular access thrombosis.
We studied 88 hemodialysis patients for the presence of antibodies to human factor II (hFII), bovine factor V (bFV), and human beta2-glycoprotein 1 (beta2GPI). Forty-one patients had elevated anti-hFII antibodies, 17 had elevated anti-bFV antibodies, and 9 had elevated anti-beta2GPI antibodies. Fifty-two patients had elevated antibodies to one or more protein. Patients with PTFE grafts had elevated antibodies most frequently (21 [75%] vs. 20 fistulas [45%; p = 0.016 compared with PTFE] and 11 tunneled catheters [68.8%]). Twelve of 13 patients (92.3%) with PTFE grafts and thrombosis had elevated antibody levels, compared with 9 of 15 without thrombosis (60%; p = 0.049). The number of thromboses and mean thrombosis rates were significantly higher in PTFE patients with antibodies (1.24 vs. 0.14 thromboses, p < 0.01; 42.67 vs. 6.44 thromboses/100 patient years, p < 0.05). When analyzed individually, thrombotic complications occurred more frequently in patients with PTFE grafts and elevated anti-bFV antibodies (p = 0.016), but did not correlate with anti-hFII or anti-beta2GPI antibodies. Thrombotic complications did not correlate with elevated antibody levels in patients with AV fistulas or cuffed catheters. In conclusion, hemodialysis patients with PTFE grafts frequently have elevated antibodies to FII, FV, and beta2GPI, and the presence of elevated antibody levels to one or more of these proteins is associated with an increased thrombotic risk. Further studies are necessary to determine whether limiting exposure to bovine thrombin preparations will decrease the incidence of these antibodies and PTFE graft thrombosis.
Sands, JJ; Nudo, SA; Moore, KD; Ortel, TL
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