Diversification before the most recent glaciation in Balanus glandula.
A deep genetic cline between southern populations of the barnacle Balanus glandula (from about Monterey Bay southward) and northern populations (from northern California through Alaska) has recently been described. If this pattern is due to historical isolation and genetic drift, we expect it to have formed recently and represent a transient, nonequilibrium state. However, this cline appears to have formed well before the last glacial maximum. Our assays of sequence diversity at a region of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I, combined with coalescent estimators of the time of separation for these two regions, suggest that a late Pleistocene event more than 100 thousand years ago may be responsible for the initial separation. This suggests that either strong oceanographic mechanisms or natural selection have maintained the cline, because there has clearly been adequate time for this cline or polymorphism to resolve itself by genetic drift and migration. However, reliance on only a single mitochondrial marker for which the substitution rate has been estimated still limits the resolution of our analysis.
Wares, JP; Cunningham, CW
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