Oncogenes, protooncogenes, and signal transduction: toward a unified theory?
This paper has reviewed, in a broad sense, the potential involvement of the oncogenes and their progenitors, the protooncogenes, in signal transduction pathways. The membrane-associated oncogene products appear to be connected with the generation and/or regulation of secondary messengers, particularly those associated with Ca2+/phospholipid-dependent activation of the serine/threonine kinase protein kinase C. Activation of transmembrane receptors, either through binding their native ligand or through point mutations that lead to constitutive expression, results in the expression of their intrinsic tyrosine-specific protein kinases. In PDGF-stimulated cells, this results in the increased turnover of phosphatidylinositols and the subsequent release of IP3 (Habenicht et al., 1981; Berridge et al., 1984). This coincides with activation of a PI kinase activity (Kaplan et al., 1987). Likewise, the fms product, which is the receptor for CSF-1, induces a guanine nucleotide-dependent activation of phospholipase C (Jackowski et al., 1986). Receptor functions are potentially regulated through differential binding of ligands (as proposed with PDGF), through interactions with other receptors, and through the "feedback" regulation mediated by protein kinase C. PDGF stimulation leads to modulation of the EGF receptor through protein kinase C (Bowen-Pope et al., 1983; Collins et al., 1983; Davis and Czech, 1985). Similarly, the neu product becomes phosphorylated on tyrosine residues following treatment of cells with EGF, although the neu protein does not bind EGF itself (King et al., 1988; Stern and Kamps, 1988). The tyrosine kinases of the src family are not receptors themselves, although they may mediate specific receptor-generated signals. The clck product is physically and functionally associated with the T-cell receptors CD4 and CD8, and becomes active upon specific stimulation of cells expressing those markers (Veillette et al., 1988a,b). The precise physiological role of the src family products has not been established, but their kinase activity is intrinsic to that function. The v- and c-src products are hyperphosphorylated during mitosis (Chackalaparampil and Shalloway, 1988), which correlates with periods of reduced cell-to-cell adhesion and communication (Warren and Nelson, 1987; Azarnia et al., 1988). Furthermore, pp60c-src is associated with a PI kinase activity when complexed with MTAg of polyoma virus, suggesting a function in stimulating increased turnover of the phosphatidylinositols (Heber and Courtneidge, 1987; Kaplan et al., 1987).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)
Volume / Issue
Start / End Page
Pubmed Central ID
International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)