Vertical and horizontal vibration of granular materials: Coulomb friction and a novel switching State
Experiments for simultaneous horizontal (h) and vertical (υ) vibration of granular materials show novel flow dynamics. We focus on moderate dimensionless accelerations 0 < Γh,υ < 1.6. Phenomena include the spontaneous formation of a static heap at Γhs(Γυ) When Γυ < 1, convective flow for Γhc > Γhs, and a novel switching state for frequencies ωυ≠ωh. A simple friction model provides an approximate, but not exact, description of the steady states and the transition to convection. © 1998 The American Physical Society.
Tennakoon, SGK; Behringer, RP
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