Identification of quinone-binding and heme-ligating residues of the smallest membrane-anchoring subunit (QPs3) of bovine heart mitochondrial succinate:ubiquinone reductase.
The smallest membrane-anchoring subunit (QPs3) of bovine heart succinate:ubiquinone reductase was overexpressed in Escherichia coli JM109 as a glutathione S-transferase fusion protein using the expression vector pGEX2T/QPs3. The yield of soluble active recombinant glutathione S-transferase-QPs3 fusion protein was isopropyl-1-thio-beta-D-galactopyranoside concentration-, induction growth time-, temperature-, and medium-dependent. Maximum yield of soluble recombinant fusion protein was obtained from cells harvested 3.5 h post-isopropyl-1-thio-beta-D-galactopyranoside (0.4 mM)-induction growth at 25 degrees C in 2.0% tryptone, 0.5% yeast extract, 10 mM NaCl, 2.5 mM KCl, 10 mM MgCl2, 20 mM glucose (SOC medium) containing 440 mM sorbitol and 2.5 mM betaine. QPs3 was released from the fusion protein by proteolytic cleavage with thrombin. Isolated recombinant QPs3 shows one protein band in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis that corresponds to subunit V of mitochondrial succinate:ubiquinone reductase. Although purified recombinant QPs3 is dispersed in 0.01% dodecylmaltoside, it is in a highly aggregated form, with an apparent molecular mass of more than 1 million. The recombinant QPs3 binds ubiquinone, causing a spectral blue shift. Upon titration of the recombinant protein with ubiquinone, a saturation behavior is observed, suggesting that the binding is specific and that recombinant QPs3 may be in the functionally active state. Two amino acid residues, serine 33 and tyrosine 37, in the putative ubiquinone binding domain of QPs3 are involved in ubiquinone binding because the S33A- or Y37A-substituted recombinant QPs3s do not cause the spectral blue shift of ubiquinone. Although recombinant QPs3 contains little cytochrome b560 heme, the spectral characteristics of cytochrome b560 are reconstituted upon addition of hemin chloride. Reconstituted cytochrome b560 in recombinant QPs3 shows a EPR signal at g = 2.92. Histidine residues at positions 46 and 60 are responsible for heme ligation because the H46N- or H60N-substituted QPs3 fail to restore cytochrome b560 upon addition of hemin chloride.
Shenoy, SK; Yu, L; Yu, CA
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