Magnetic resonance microscopy of toxic renal injury induced by bromoethylamine in rats.
The alkylhalide 2-bromoethylamine hydrobromide (BEA) produces renal injury in rats that mimics analgesic-related renal injury in humans. Our purpose was to examine this injury, in vivo in rats, with magnetic resonance (MR) microscopy and correlate MR findings with findings from light microscopy of hematoxylin-eosin-stained sections. Rats (n = 48) were injected intravenously with BEA (150 mg/kg) or saline and imaged with MR 6, 48, and 336 hr later. The spin-spin relaxation time, T2, was measured from the cortex to the papilla. In other rats, we measured regional water content of the kidney. Renal injury was present 48 and 336 hr after BEA dosing based on increased renal organ weights, decreased urine specific gravity, and significant renal lesions (H & E). T2 was elevated in the inner stripe of the outer medulla in injured kidneys at 48 hr. The differences in T2 between cortex and outer medulla were also elevated 48 hr after BEA. In the inner medulla, there were no changes in T2 after BEA treatment. However, in all groups there were significant regional differences in T2. The value of T2 increased from outer to inner medulla and this gradient was directly correlated with water content. Thus, MR microscopy detected damage in the outer medulla after BEA injury but not the damage in the inner medulla. T2 appeared to reflect the water content in the different regions of the medulla. The noninvasive in vivo capability of MR microscopy, with its high sensitivity to tissue water, allows the toxicologist to monitor the progression and regression of toxic insult in the same animal. At present the technology is complicated. The precise and accurate measure of MR-sensitive parameters in live animals at microscopic resolution is difficult. However, as the technology matures, there will be significant improvements providing the toxicologist a unique in vivo tool.
Hedlund, LW; Maronpot, RR; Johnson, GA; Cofer, GP; Mills, GI; Wheeler, CT
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