Mechanism of detection of acute cerebral ischemia in rats by diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance microscopy.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to measure apparent diffusion coefficients in rat brain tissue exposed to ouabain, glutamate, and N-methyl-D-aspartate and to compare them with apparent diffusion coefficients found in acute cerebral ischemia. METHODS: The apparent diffusion coefficient was measured using magnetic resonance microscopy in four groups of Sprague-Dawley rats after occlusion of the right middle cerebral artery and ipsilateral common carotid artery (n = 7), after ouabain exposure (n = 6), during glutamate exposure (n = 7), or during N-methyl-D-aspartate exposure (n = 3). Ouabain, glutamate, and N-methyl-D-aspartate were applied via an intracerebrally implanted microdialysis membrane. RESULTS: Three hours after the induction of focal cerebral ischemia, a 33% reduction in the apparent diffusion coefficient was observed in the right dorsolateral corpus striatum and olfactory cortex. After ouabain exposure, reductions in the apparent diffusion coefficient were observed within a 1,500-microns radius of the microdialysis membrane. Quantitative analysis revealed that apparent diffusion coefficient values in ischemic and ouabain-exposed tissue fell within the same range. Glutamate and N-methyl-D-aspartate reduced the brain tissue apparent diffusion coefficient by 35% and 40%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: On the basis of these findings, we conclude that ischemia-induced apparent diffusion coefficient reductions are likely caused by a shift of extracellular to intracellular water.
Benveniste, H; Hedlund, LW; Johnson, GA
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