Patterns of after-school care in middle childhood: Risk factors and developmental outcomes
Investigated was the extent to which children's involvement in differing types of after-school care (ASC) in Grades 1, 3, and 5 predicted behavioral adjustment and academic performance in Grade 6. Interviews with 466 mothers provided information about children's ASC experiences. Teacher ratings of children's adjustment were collected in kindergarten; sixth-grade teacher ratings and school records provided follow-up outcome data. High amounts of self-care predicted poorer adjustment even after controlling for socioeconomic status (SES) and prior adjustment. Poor adjustment outcomes for self-care were most apparent for children already displaying problem behavior in kindergarten, and for children not participating in adult-supervised extracurricular activities. The impact of several types of care was moderated by SES and child sex. These findings highlight the social context of the ASC experience, with prior adjustment, family background, and patterning of care all serving as important factors in the care-outcome linkage.
Pettit, GS; Laird, RD; Bates, JE; Dodge, KA
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