Methodological guidelines for impedance cardiography.
Impedance cardiography was introduced over 20 years ago as a noninvasive and unobtrusive technique for measuring systolic time intervals and cardiac output. Although our understanding of the physiological events reflected in the impedance cardiogram has become more refined, the technique's theoretical basis remains somewhat controversial and acceptance of its validity has relied heavily upon empirical validation. Largely as a consequence of this status, there have been inadequate grounds on which to develop sound methodological standardization. Currently, the methodological approaches that have been most frequently adopted may be viewed as representing the standard. The various aspects of impedance methodology are discussed, and alternative approaches described, with the objective of providing an informed basis for choosing among these methodological alternatives. It is recommended that studies utilizing impedance cardiography should be reported with clear and detailed methodological description. This should help clarify the extent to which methodological differences may underlie any discrepant research observations, as well as facilitate the emergence of improved methodological standards.
Sherwood, A; Allen, MT; Fahrenberg, J; Kelsey, RM; Lovallo, WR; van Doornen, LJ
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