Comparison of impedance cardiographic measurements using band and spot electrodes.
The comprehensive assessment of cardiac function using impedance cardiography has led to increasingly widespread use of the technique in psychophysiology. Disposable adhesive band electrodes have been the most widely used electrode type, but spot electrode configurations present attractive alternatives in terms of convenience and subject comfort. The present study was designed to evaluate whether one such spot electrode configuration yielded the same information as the more standard band electrodes for cardiac output and systolic time interval measurement. Male and female healthy adult subjects (N = 20) were tested. Comparisons between spot and band electrodes were made for the absolute magnitude of cardiac output and systolic time intervals, as well as for responses to the highly reproducible effects of bicycle exercise. Consistent with previous findings, systolic time interval measurements were unaffected by electrode type. However, for cardiac output measurements, differences between spot and band electrode measurements were found. Under resting conditions, the absolute magnitudes of cardiac output values measured using spot electrodes were smaller than for band electrodes. Subtle, yet significant differences were also found for cardiac output responses to exercise, with spot electrodes indicating greater increases in cardiac output than band electrodes. At the same time, anticipated gender differences found for cardiac output at rest and in response to exercise were unaffected by electrode type. Overall, these findings suggest that when comparing the results of studies that have utilized different impedance electrode types, it would be prudent to remain alert to the possibility of confounding influences.
Sherwood, A; Royal, SA; Hutcheson, JS; Turner, JR
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