Effects of smoking and telic/paratelic dominance on the contingent negative variation (CNV).
Concepts from reversal theory, a general theory of motivation, emotion and action, have recently been shown to be relevant to smoking behavior and smoking cessation. One relevant concept is that of telic and paratelic dominance. Individuals who are paratelic-dominant are playful, spontaneous, and prefer high arousal seeking. Those who are telic-dominant are serious, tend to plan ahead, and prefer low arousal. This led to the hypothesis that smoking might increase the amplitude of the contingent negative variation (CNV) in paratelic-dominant smokers more than in telic-dominant smokers. CNV was obtained using a Go/NoGo reaction time task with a 2 s S1-S2 interval and variable intertrial intervals. S1 indicated whether the subject was to respond to S2 or not. Errors were punished with a burst of white noise. Subjects performed the CNV task three times: after being deprived of smoking for at least 4 h; after sham smoking; and after smoking a cigarette of their own brand. Telic-dominant subjects differed from paratelic-dominant subjects in the relative amplitude of early (1 s) and late (2 s) components of the CNV. Smoking did not differentially affect the dominance groups unless gender was taken into account, and the most striking interactions between smoking and dominance groups were noted for the NoGo trials. As expected, smoking decreased the amplitude of the early component of the NoGo CNV for telic-dominant women, but increased it for paratelic-dominant women; no significant differences were found for the late component. In men, smoking increased the late CNV more for telics than for paratelics, while smoking did not differentially affect the early component.
Cook, MR; Gerkovich, MM; Hoffman, SJ; McClernon, FJ; O'Connell, KA
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