Electromyographic biofeedback: behavioral treatment of neuromuscular disorders.
Electromyographic biofeedback is becoming widely used to help patients regain voluntary control of specific muscles affected by neuromuscular disorders. Electromyographic feedback training has been employed in the rehabilitation of patients affected by poliomyelitis, cerebrovascular accident, torticollis, nerve injury, temporomandibular joint syndrome, bruxism, and other disorders. While EMG biofeedback appears to be a promising treatment technique, the research literature on its effectiveness consists mainly of uncontrolled case reports and clinical trials. It is concluded that new studies with more sophisticated design and more careful control are needed to demonstrate that EMG biofeedback makes a unique contribution to the treatment of neuromuscular disorders. Research is needed to identify relevant patients characteristics predictive of success, specify appropriate muscle groups for the treatment of particular disorders, determine how feedback can be most efficiently combined with more conventional techniques in achieving a therapeutic effect, and establish meaningful criteria of success in the treatment of neuromuscular disorders.
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