The relationship of negative thoughts to pain and psychological distress
This study examines the degree to which negative thoughts during flare-ups of pain are related to pain and psychological distress in three pain populations, sickle cell disease, rheumatoid arthritis, and chronic pain. One-hundred eighty-five subjects completed the Inventory of Negative Thoughts in Response to Pain (INTRP), a pain rating scale, the Symptom Checklist 90-R, and the Coping Strategies Questionnaire. Factor analysis of the INTRP revealed three factors: Negative Self-Statements, Negative Social Cognitions, and Self-Blame. High scorers on Negative Self-Statements and Negative Social Cognitions reported more severe pain and psychological distress. Patients with chronic daily pain had more frequent negative thoughts during flare-ups than patients having intermittent pain secondary to sickle cell disease or rheumatoid arthritis. Data suggest that the INTRP has adequate internal consistency and construct validity, and appears to be a useful tool for assessing negative throughts in response to pain. © 1990 Association for Advancement of Behavior Therapy. All rights reserved.
Gil, KM; Williams, DA; Keefe, FJ; Beckham, JC
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