Chlorpyrifos exposure of developing zebrafish: effects on survival and long-term effects on response latency and spatial discrimination.
Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is a widely used insecticide, which has been shown to interfere with neurobehavioral development. Rat models have been key in demonstrating that prenatal CPF exposure causes choice accuracy deficits and motor alterations, which persist into adulthood. Complementary nonmammalian models can be useful in determining the molecular mechanisms underlying the persisting behavioral effects of developmental CPF exposure. Zebrafish with their clear chorion and extensive developmental information base provide an excellent model for assessment of molecular processes of toxicant impacted neurodevelopment. To facilitate the use of the zebrafish model and to compare it to the more typical rodent models, the behavioral phenotype of CPF toxicity in zebrafish must be well characterized. Our laboratory has developed methods for assessing spatial discrimination learning in zebrafish, which can differentiate response latency from choice accuracy in a three chambered fish tank. Low and high doses of CPF (10 and 100 ng/ml on days 1-5 postfertilization) both had significant persisting effects on both spatial discrimination and response latency over 18 weeks of testing. The high, but not the low dose, significantly accelerated mortality rates of the fish during the study from 20-38 weeks of age. Developmental exposure to either 10 or 100 ng/ml of CPF caused significant spatial discrimination impairments in zebrafish when they were adults. The impairment caused by 10 ng/ml was seen during early but not later testing, while the impairment caused by 100 ng/ml became more pronounced with continued testing. The higher dose caused a more pervasive impairment. The 10 and 100 ng/ml doses had opposite effects on response latency. The low 10 ng/ml dose significantly slowed response latency, while the high 100 ng/ml dose significant increased response latency. Both of these effects diminished with continued testing. CPF exposure during early development caused clear behavioral impairments, which lasted throughout adulthood in zebrafish. The molecular mechanisms by which early developmental CPF exposure produces these behavioral impairments expressed in adulthood can now be studied in the zebrafish model.
Levin, ED; Chrysanthis, E; Yacisin, K; Linney, E
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