Heterogeneity of toxicant response: sources of human variability.


Journal Article (Review)

While risk assessment models attempt to predict human risk to toxicant exposure, in many cases these models cannot account for the wide variety of human responses. This review addresses several primary sources of heterogeneity that may affect individual responses to drug or toxicant exposure. Consideration was given to genetic polymorphisms, age-related factors during development and senescence, gender differences associated with hormonal function, and preexisting diseases influenced by toxicant exposure. These selected examples demonstrate the need for additional steps in risk assessment that are needed to more accurately predict human responses to toxicants and drugs.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Aldridge, JE; Gibbons, JA; Flaherty, MM; Kreider, ML; Romano, JA; Levin, ED

Published Date

  • November 2003

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 76 / 1

Start / End Page

  • 3 - 20

PubMed ID

  • 12883075

Pubmed Central ID

  • 12883075

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

  • 1096-6080

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1093/toxsci/kfg204


  • eng

Conference Location

  • United States