Pain coping and the pain experience in children with juvenile chronic arthritis.
This study examined the pain experience and pain coping of children with juvenile chronic arthritis (JCA). The purpose of the study was to describe present pain and the pain coping strategies utilized by children with juvenile chronic arthritis and examine pain coping strategies and pain efficacy as a predictor of pain intensity and distribution. Fifty-six children with JCA rated their present pain using two measures of pain intensity, the Oucher and the pain thermometer, and reported on the number of pain locations using a body map. In addition, each child completed the Child Version of the Coping Strategies Questionnaire (CSQ-C) and health status was determined by a physician's disease activity rating. On average, children reported current pain in the low to middle range on the different pain scales, although there was considerable variability in pain ratings. Up to 30% of all children had pain ratings higher than or equal to the middle range on both the Oucher and the pain thermometer. On average, children reported pain in more than two body areas. Correlational analyses were conducted to examine how the composite factors on the CSQ-C (Pain Control and Rational Thinking, and Coping Attempts) related to variations in reported pain intensity and location. Children who scored higher on the Pain Control and Rational Thinking factor of the CSQ-C had much lower ratings of pain intensity and reported pain in fewer body areas. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that disease activity and scores on the Pain Control and Rational Thinking factor of the CSQ-C each accounted for a unique, statistically significant proportion of variance in the measures of pain intensity and pain location. Behavioral and cognitive therapy interventions designed to increase pain coping efficacy may be useful adjuncts in treating pain in children with chronic arthritis.
Schanberg, LE; Lefebvre, JC; Keefe, FJ; Kredich, DW; Gil, KM
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