Social context of pain in children with Juvenile Primary Fibromyalgia Syndrome: parental pain history and family environment.
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to describe parental pain history and the family environment as it relates to the functional status of children with Juvenile Primary Fibromyalgia Syndrome (JPFS). DESIGN AND OUTCOME MEASURES: Twenty-nine parents of children with JPFS completed a pain history questionnaire, Von Korff Chronic Pain Grading system, and the Family Environment Scale (FES). Twenty-one adolescents with JPFS completed the FES, the Visual Analogue Scale for Pain, the modified Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire for Children, the Arthritis Impact Measurement Scales, and the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised. Correlational analyses were performed. RESULTS: Parents of children with JPFS reported multiple chronic pain conditions, including but not limited to fibromyalgia. Parental pain history and the family environment correlated with the health status of adolescents with JPFS. Children with JPFS perceived the family environment as significantly more cohesive than did their parents. Greater incongruence between parent and child responses on the FES positively correlated with greater impairment. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that family environment and parental pain history ày be related to how children cope with JPFS. Behavioral interventions targeting the family may improve the long-term functional status of children with JPFS.
Schanberg, LE; Keefe, FJ; Lefebvre, JC; Kredich, DW; Gil, KM
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