Gender differences in pain, coping, and mood in individuals having osteoarthritic knee pain: a within-day analysis.
This study examined gender differences in prospective within-day assessments of pain, pain coping, and mood in men and women having OA, and analyzed gender differences in dynamic relations between pain, mood, and pain coping. A sample of 64 women and 36 men diagnosed as having pain due to osteoarthritis of the knee(s) rated their pain, pain coping, and mood two times each day (once in the afternoon and once in the evening) for 30 days using a booklet format. Two gender differences were found in between person-analyses: women used more problem focused coping than men, and women who catastrophized were less likely than men to report negative mood. Several within-day and across-day gender differences were noted. First, women were much more likely to show a significant increase in pain over the day. Second, men were more likely than women to experience an increase in coping efficacy over the day. Third, men were more likely than women to use emotion-focused coping when their mood was more negative. Finally, men were more likely than women to experience an increase in negative mood and a decrease in positive mood in the morning after an evening of increased pain. Taken together, these findings underscore the importance of obtaining multiple daily assessments when studying gender differences in the pain experience.
Keefe, FJ; Affleck, G; France, CR; Emery, CF; Waters, S; Caldwell, DS; Stainbrook, D; Hackshaw, KV; Fox, LC; Wilson, K
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