IgG antibody response to polyethylene glycol-modified adenosine deaminase in patients with adenosine deaminase deficiency.
Polyethylene glycol (PEG)-modified bovine adenosine deaminase (ADA) is used for replacement therapy of severe combined immunodeficiency disease due to inherited ADA deficiency. We monitored IgG anti-ADA antibody in 17 patients treated by intramuscular injections of PEG-ADA for 1 to greater than 5.5 yr. ELISA-detectable anti-ADA IgG appeared in 10 patients, usually between the third and eighth months of treatment. Anti-ADA levels did not correlate with trough plasma ADA activity, which averaged 1.8-5 times normal blood (erythrocyte) ADA activity, depending on dose (15-60 U/kg per wk). ELISA-detectable anti-ADA antibodies were directed primarily at bovine-specific peptide (rather than PEG-containing) epitopes. Enhanced enzyme clearance, mediated by antibody that directly inhibited native and PEG-modified bovine ADA, and native, but not PEG-modified human ADA, occurred in two patients. In one, tolerance was induced; in the second, twice weekly injections of PEG-ADA compensated for accelerated clearance. We speculate that inhibitory antibodies recognize conserved, relatively PEG-free epitope(s) encompassing the active site, and that in human, but not bovine, ADA a PEG-attachment site "shields" the active site from immune recognition. We conclude that PEG-modification largely prevents the development of high affinity, or high levels of clearing antibodies to bovine ADA, and that PEG-modified human ADA should be further investigated as a possible treatment for ADA deficiency.
Chaffee, S; Mary, A; Stiehm, ER; Girault, D; Fischer, A; Hershfield, MS
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