Gender differences in the academic locus of control beliefs of young children
Conducted a statistical combination on past research examining gender differences in the locus of control beliefs of elementary school children. The review revealed that 235 females tended to score more internally than 200 males in total- and failure-outcome locus of control, as measured by the Intellectual Achievement Responsibility (IAR) Questionnaire. A new administration of the IAR (210 males, 215 females) revealed significantly more female internality for both success and failure outcomes--but only at the end of the school year. Also, females cited effort as the cause of success more often than males. These results are at odds with those found in studies that manipulated success and failure events. Possible reasons for the reversal are discussed. The results suggest (a) greater female internality exists in elementary school, but the gender difference is small; (b) the roots of lesser female adult achievement behavior may not be found in elementary school belief systems; and (c) it may be improper to conclude that young females express a helplessness pattern of attributions with regard to the achievement domain. (41 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved). © 1981 American Psychological Association.
Cooper, HM; Burger, JM; Good, TL
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