Controlling personal rewards: Professional teachers' differential use of feedback and the effects of feedback on the student's motivation to perform
Conducted 3 experiments with 104 children in kindergarten, 1st, and 2nd grade to test hypotheses derived from the proposition that teachers criticize low-expectation students in order to control their personal reinforcement schedules. Results show the following: (a) Teachers' expectations for and perceptions of control over student performance were found to be significantly positively related, even when student sex and IQ (as assessed by the Metropolitan Achievement Test) were controlled. (b) The removal of academic criticism in the 1st- and 2nd-grade classes increased academic initiations by highly criticized students relative to other students. (c) Ss' perceptions of the covariation between effort and outcome was negatively related to amount of criticism received after seeking out the teacher for academic reasons. It is suggested that because low-expectation students' feedback may be less contingent on the outcome of a specific performance, low-expectation students become less motivated to perform well in the future. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved). © 1977 American Psychological Association.
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