Effect of intravesical nitric oxide therapy on cyclophosphamide-induced cystitis.
PURPOSE: This study was conducted to examine effects of nitric oxide (NO) donors on bladder hyperactivity induced by cyclophosphamide (CYP)-induced cystitis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Female Sprague-Dawley rats received a single intraperitoneal injection of CYP (100 mg./kg.), and then their micturition pattern including mean micturition volume and the number of micturitions during 24 hours was recorded in a metabolic cage before and after CYP treatment. Forty-eight hours after CYP injection, bladder function under urethane anesthesia was evaluated by cystometry with continuous saline infusion (0.04 ml. per minute) or under isovolumetric conditions (0.8 ml. bladder volume). NO donors, S-nitroso-N-acetyl-penicillamine (SNAP, 2 mM) or sodium nitroprusside (SNP, 1 mM), and an NO synthase (NOS) inhibitor, N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 20 mM) were administered intravesically. Direct action of SNAP on bladder afferent neurons was also tested in a patch-clamp recording study. RESULTS: The number of micturitions significantly increased during the first 24 hours after CYP injection (19.0 +/- 0.88 versus 92.1 +/- 16.3 micturitions/24 hours, mean +/- SE, n = 25) (p <0.001). There was no significant difference in total micturition volume before (12.3 +/- 1.0 ml./24 hours) and after CYP treatment (15.6 +/- 1.5 ml./24 hours). During continuous infusion cystometry, intercontraction interval (ICI) was smaller in CYP-injected rats than in control rats. In CYP-injected animals, NO donors increased the ICI, but did not change the amplitude of bladder contractions. Continuous intravesical infusion of the NOS inhibitor did not alter the cystometric parameters. During cystometry under isovolumetric conditions, contraction frequency was decreased after NO donor administration. NO donors did not influence bladder activity in control rats. In patch clamp recordings, when SNAP (500 microM) was directly applied to dissociated afferent neurons innervating the urinary bladder, high-voltage-activated Ca2+ channel currents were suppressed by approximately 30%. CONCLUSIONS: Intravesical NO donors can suppress CYP-induced bladder hyperactivity. We hypothesize that the effect of NO donors is not due to smooth muscle relaxation, but rather due to an inhibitory effect on bladder afferent pathways that was manifested by an increase in intercontraction interval without changes in contraction amplitude. NO donors may be considered as a possible treatment of CYP-induced and other types of bladder inflammation.
Ozawa, H; Chancellor, MB; Jung, SY; Yokoyama, T; Fraser, MO; Yu, Y; de Groat, WC; Yoshimura, N
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