Responses of baboons to prolonged hyperoxia: physiology and qualitative pathology.
Cardiopulmonary responses to prolonged hyperoxia and their relationships to the development of lung pathology have not been fully characterized in primates. In this study, circulatory hemodynamics and pulmonary function, vascular permeability, and leukocyte sequestration were measured in male baboons after 100% O2 exposure and related to ultrastructural changes of lung injury by electron microscopy. Three groups of animals were exposed to 100% O2 in an exposure cage for 40, 66, and 80 h, respectively. A fourth group of animals was exposed in a cage for 80 h and then anesthetized and ventilated with 100% O2 for additional time. These animals were exposed for a total duration of 110 h or until death from the injury. Physiological responses to hyperoxia were characterized by decreases in total lung capacity and inspiratory capacity at 80 and 110 h. A significant increase in pulmonary leukocyte accumulation was noted by 80 h. Extravascular lung water and permeability surface-area product increased at 80 and 110 h. Cardiac output and stroke volume also decreased, and systemic vascular resistance increased after 80 and 110 h of hyperoxia. Histopathological changes were present in the lungs of all but the 40-h exposure group. Animals exposed for 66 h showed endothelial injury and neutrophil accumulation. By 80 h, animals showed endothelial cell destruction, interstitial edema, and type I cell injury. At 110 h, animals showed substantial destruction of endothelial and type I epithelial cells, exposure of alveolar basement membrane, congestion of capillaries, and substantial interstitial edema. The data indicate that histological changes by electron microscopy precede physiological responses to hyperoxic pulmonary injury in baboons by as much as 14 h and that the physiological responses to early hyperoxic injury are relatively insensitive to the pathological injury.
Fracica, PJ; Knapp, MJ; Piantadosi, CA; Takeda, K; Fulkerson, WJ; Coleman, RE; Wolfe, WG; Crapo, JD
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