Utility of fine-needle aspiration in the diagnosis of primary osteosarcoma.
Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) is a reliable, safe, and cost-effective procedure with a well-established role in the diagnosis of various solid tissue neoplasms. The role of FNA in the diagnosis of primary bone tumors, including osteosarcoma (OGS), is controversial and has yet to be established. We reviewed our experience with the use of FNA as a diagnostic technique over the past 8 yr at our institution. Diagnosis was conclusive in 26 (65%) of 40 patients, 18 of whom went to neoadjuvant therapy and/or resection based solely on the FNA interpretation of either "high grade sarcoma" or "osteosarcoma." Of the remaining 14 (25%) patients, 12 had inconclusive diagnosis and two (5%) were false-negatives. An inconclusive diagnosis was most likely to be an inadequate or paucicellular aspirate, seen in six (15%) patients. An additional six patients had variants of osteosarcoma (four chondroid, one "giant cell rich," one parosteal) that made definitive diagnosis impossible. The two that were incorrectly classified were diagnosed as fracture callus and plasmacytoma. FNA is an accurate and cost-effective tool for the initial diagnosis of primary osteosarcoma with a sensitivity of 65% and accuracy of 95%. Inconclusive diagnoses are likely to be due to insufficient sample cellularity or the presence of OGS variant. In our experience, FNA is sufficient to provide the diagnosis of OGS prior to definitive treatment when interpreted in conjunction with imaging studies and clinical findings. In those cases where FNA fails to yield a diagnostic sample, a traditional biopsy can be performed.
Dodd, LG; Scully, SP; Cothran, RL; Harrelson, JM
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